By 1830 the former Spanish and Portuguese colonies had become independent nations. The roughly 20 million_____（1）of these nations looked_____（2）to the future. Born in the crisis of the old regime and Iberian colonialism, many of the leaders of independence_____（3）the ideals of representative government, careers_____（4）to talent, freedom of commerce and trade, the_____（5）to private property, and a belief in the individual as the basis of society. _____（6）there was a belief that the new nations should be sovereign and independent states, large enough to be economically viable and integrated by a_____（7）set of laws.
On the issue of_____（8）of religion and the position of the Church,_____（9）, there was less agreement_____（10）the leadership. Roman Catholicism had been the state religion and the only one_____（11）by the Spanish crown.
_____（12）most leaders sought to maintain Catholicism_____（13）the official religion of the new states, some sought to end the_____（14）of other faiths. The defense of the Church became a rallying_____（15）for the conservative forces.
The ideals of the early leaders of independence were often egalitarian, valuing equality of everything. Bolivar had received aid from Haiti and had_____（16）in return to abolish slavery in the areas he liberated. By 1854 slavery had been abolished everywhere except Spain’s_____（17）colonies. Early promises to end Indian tribute and taxes on people of mixed origin came much_____（18）because the new nations still needed the revenue such policies_____（19）. Egalitarian sentiments were often tempered by fears that the mass of the population was_____（20）self-rule and democracy.